TY - JOUR
TI - Assessing the feasibility of Phase 3 vaccine trials against Marburg Virus Disease: A modelling study
AU - Qian, George Y.
AU - Jombart, Thibaut
AU - John Edmunds, W.
T2 - Vaccine: X
AB - Background
Outbreaks of Marburg virus disease (MVD) are rare and small in size, with only 18 recorded outbreaks since 1967, only two of which involved more than 100 cases. It has been proposed, therefore, that Phase 3 trials for MVD vaccines should be held open over multiple outbreaks until sufficient end points accrue to enable vaccine efficacy (VE) to be calculated. Here we estimate how many outbreaks might be needed for VE to be estimated.
Methods
We adapt a mathematical model of MVD transmission to simulate a Phase 3 individually randomised placebo controlled vaccine trial. We assume in the base case that vaccine efficacy is 70% and that 50% of individuals in affected areas are enrolled into the trial (1:1 randomisation). We further assume that the vaccine trial starts two weeks after public health interventions are put in place and that cases occurring within 10 days of vaccination are not included in VE calculations.
Results
The median size of simulated outbreaks was 2 cases. Only 0.3% of simulated outbreaks were predicted to have more than 100 MVD cases. 95% of simulated outbreaks terminated before cases accrued in the placebo and vaccine arms. Therefore the number of outbreaks required to estimate VE was large: after 100 outbreaks, the estimated VE was 69% but with considerable uncertainty (95% CIs: 0%−100%) while the estimated VE after 200 outbreaks was 67% (95% CIs: 42%−85%). Altering base-case assumptions made little difference to the findings. In a sensitivity analysis, increasing R0 by 25% and 50% led to an estimated VE after 200 outbreaks of 69% (95% CIs: 53–85%) and 70% (95% CIs: 59–82%), respectively.
Conclusions
It is unlikely that the efficacy of any candidate vaccine can be calculated before more MVD outbreaks have occurred than have been recorded to date. This is because MVD outbreaks tend to be small, public health interventions have been historically effective at reducing transmission, and vaccine trials are only likely to start after these interventions are already in place. Hence, it is expected that outbreaks will terminate before, or shortly after, cases start to accrue in the vaccine and placebo arms.
DA - 2023/08/01/
PY - 2023
DO - 10.1016/j.jvacx.2023.100321
DP - ScienceDirect
VL - 14
SP - 100321
J2 - Vaccine: X
SN - 2590-1362
ST - Assessing the feasibility of Phase 3 vaccine trials against Marburg Virus Disease
UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590136223000621
Y2 - 2023/11/05/07:58:11
KW - Filovirus
KW - Marburg
KW - Marburgvirus
KW - Vaccination
KW - Vaccine trial
ER -